Teaching the History of Extension and the Land-Grant University System – Issue 2

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Joseph L. Donaldson, PhD, Assistant Professor

Understanding Extension and land-grant history has been identified as an important topic in various studies of Extension professional competencies, including the 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competencies Study (Stone & Rennekamp, 2004). A new resource is Defining Moments: Review of History of Extension  and the Land-Grant University System Facilitation Guide.

Previous Question and Answer:

On an annual basis, the Smith-Lever Act provides more funds to states with a higher percentage of ______________________________?

  1. Rural population and farm population (correct)
  2. Rural poverty and food processors
  3. Urban population and food production
  4. Urban poverty and farm bankruptcies

By law, Smith-Lever funds are allocated:

  • 4 percent for USDA administration
  • 20 percent shared by all states in equal proportion
  • 40 percent shared in proportion to the state’s rural population to total rural population
  • 40 percent shared in proportion to the state’s farm population to the total farm population

The population counts must come from the United States Census.

This Week’s Question:

For the next few weeks, we will share a question in IDEA S. Test your knowledge and look for the answer in future issues of IDEAS.

Gertrude Warren is known as the “mother of 4-H.” Which of the following occurred under her leadership as USDA national program leader?

  1. 4-H membership increased by 1.6 million.
  2. 4-H membership increased by 500,000.
  3. 4-H STEM programs were first established.
  4. 4-H food preservation clubs were first established.


Stone, B., & Rennekamp, R. (2004). New Foundations for the 4-H Youth Development Profession: 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competencies Study, 2004. Conducted in cooperation with the National 4-H Professional Development Task Force. National 4-H Headquarters, CSREES, USDA